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Assignment on elements and process of communication



Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules.

Communication is the process of exchanging information, usually through a common system of symbols. It takes a wide variety of forms – from two people having a face to face conversation to hand signals to messages sent over the global telecommunication networks. Common forms of communication include speaking, writing, gesturing and broadcasting. Therefore, communication means to inform, tell, show, or spread information. When a person communicates, he/ she establish a common ground of understanding. In the organizational context, it brings about a unity of purpose, interest and effort.

Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channelled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and an intended recipient,

Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative commonality. There are auditory means, such as speech, song, and tone of voice, and there are nonverbal means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, through media, i.e., pictures, graphics and sound, and writing.


Communication is a process where people (communicator) sending stimulus in purpose to change or to make behaviour of other people.

( Hovland, Janis & Kelley : 1953 )

Communication basely is a process which explain who, says what, in which channel, to whom, with what effect.

( Lasswell : 1960 )

“Communication: the transmission of information, idea, emotion, skills, etc., by the use of symbols-words, pictures, figures, graphs, etc. It is the act or process of   transmission that is usually called communication”

(Berelson and  Steiner, 1964).

Communication is the process that involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting actions which will accomplish organizational goals.

( William Scott: 1977)

Communication is a continuing and thinking process dealing with the transmission and interchange with the understanding of ideas, facts and course of action.

(Terry and Franklin 1984)

Communication is the process of meaningful interactions among persons in an organization resulting in meanings being perceived and understanding effected among such persons. –

(Rustom Davar 1980)

According  to Keith Davis, ‘The process of passing the information and understanding from one person to another. It is essentially a bridge of meaning between the people. By using the bridge a person can safely across the river of misunderstanding’.


Communication can also be defined in the following ways:

  • The process by which information and feelings are shared by people through an exchange of verbal and non-verbal messages.
  • The successful transmission of information through a common system of symbols, signs, behaviour, speech, writing or signals.
  • The creation of shared understanding through interaction among two or more agents.

Communication is usually described along a few major dimensions: Message (type of what things are communicated), source / emisor / sender / encoder (by whom), form (in which form), channel (through which medium), destination / receiver / target / decoder (to whom), and Receiver. Wilbur Schram (1954) also indicated that we should also examine the impact that a message has (both desired and undesired) on the target of the message [9]. Between parties, communication includes acts that confer knowledge and experiences, give advice and commands, and ask questions. These acts may take many forms, in one of the various manners of communication. The form depends on the abilities of the group communicating. Together, communication content and form make messages that are sent towards a destination. The target can be oneself, another person or being, another entity (such as a corporation or group of beings). Communication requires that the communicating people share an area of common interest and ideas.


The process of communication and Elements of communication:

According to Harold D Lasswell   elements are mainly in 5 basic , They are






The communication process involves the sender, the transmission of a message through a selected channel and the receiver . Although the process of communication is more than the sum total of these elements, understanding them can help to explain what happens when one person tries to express an idea to others.

According to R.C.Bhatia the elements are in 7 basis  they are;

(a)  SENDER : The process of communication begins with a sender , the person who transmits a message. The sender is also called the ‘encoder’ because ‘to encode’ is to put a message into words or images.The branch manager explaining new product lines to the sales force , a computer programmer explaining a new program to a co-worker, an accounting giving financial report to its superior are all sender of communication.

(b) MESSAGE:  The message is what the sender wants to convey to the receiver. A message is any signal that triggers the response of a receiver . Messages could be verbal( written or spoken ) or non-verbal (such as appearance, body language , silence, sounds yawns, sighs etc.).

(c)  ENCODING: The sender must choose certain words or nonverbal methods to send an international message. This activity called encoding. While encoding a message , one needs to consider what contents to include , how the receiver will interpret it and how  it may affects one’s relationship. A simple “thankful” message will be relatively easy. In construct to inform 200 employees of a bad news about salary cut or bid on engineering plans to construct a 50 crore industrial building will require much more complicated , carefully planned message.

(d) CHANNEL: How  will you send your message…????  Should it be sent via an electronic word processing system to be read on the, receiver’s

screen or through the printed word or through graphic symbol on paper , or via the medium of sound ?

  The choice of channel or medium is influenced by the inter-relationships between the sender and the receiver. It also depends upon the urgency of the message being sent. Besides, one may consider factors such as importance, number of receivers, costs and amount of information. Generally , it has been observed that if message requires an immediate answer, an oral channel may be the better choice. For communication to be efficient and effective, the channel must be appropriate for the message.

Oral communication may be staff meeting reports , face to face discussions, speeches, audio tapes, telephone chats, teleconferences.

External written communication media may be letters, reports, proposals, telegrams, faxes, electronic mails, telexes, postcards, contracts, ads, brouchers, catalogues, news release etc. You may communicate orally face to face , by telephone, or by speeches in solo or in panel situations personally before groups or via teleconferences or television.

(e)RECEIVER;   Receiver is the person or group for whom the communication is intended. A receiver is any person who notices and attaches some meaning to a message . In the best circumstances, a message reaches its intended receiver with no problems. In  the confusing and imperfect world of business, however, several problems can occur.


(f)DECODING; There is no guarantee that it will be understood as the sender intended  it to be. The receiver must still decode it. Attaching meaning to the words or symbols. It may be noted that decoding is not always accurate. It depends upon individual experiences. The problem is that all of us do not have identical experiences  with the subject or symbols chosen by the sender. Even attitudes , abilities , opinions , communication skills and cultural customs vary.  There are greater chance of misinterpretation ; personal biases may intervene, as each receiver tries to perceive the intended meaning of the sender’s  idea in his or her own receptor mechanism.

(g)FEEDBACK; Ultimately the receiver reacts or responds to the communication sent by the sender . It is the reaction to receiving the message.  The  response could be based on clear interpretation of the symbols sent or it could b based on misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the symbols sent. Whatever the response of a receiver to a sender is , it is called feedback. Some feedback is nonverbal- smiles, sighs, nods and so on. Sometimes it is oral as when you react to a colleague’s ideas with questions or comments.        

The whole process is straightforward the sender encodes the message and transmits it through the most appropriate channel to the receiver who decodes it and sends the corresponding feedback.


Communication is sharing of thoughts and feelings at different levels , weaving relationship that are more or less healthy , requiring various skills.

Communication is everywhere and always. Its is a continuous process.

And the elements are SENDER – Who Says, MESSAGE-What he says, CHANNEL- In which channel, RECEIVER- To whom, EFFECTS- with what effect.


ü Communication studies, Will Barton and Andrew Beck, 2005.

ü Business Communication, R.C.Bhatia , 2 nd edition, ane books pvt Ltd,

New Delhi , 2008.

ü  Lecturer of Bangalore University, Bangalore university Notes,





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